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DLC (類金剛石鍍膜(Diamond-like carbon))
“DLC”是英文“DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON”一詞的縮寫。DLC是一種由碳元素構成、在性質上和鉆石類似,同時又具有石墨原子組成結構的物質。類金剛石薄膜(DLC)是一種非晶態薄膜,由于具有高硬度和高彈性模量,低摩擦因數,耐磨損以及良好的真空摩擦學特性,很適合于作為耐磨涂層,從而引起了摩擦學界的重視。
1、力學性能
a.硬度及彈性模量。不同的沉積方法制備的DLC膜硬度及彈性模量差異很大,用磁過濾陰極電弧法可以制備出硬度達到甚至超過金剛石的DLC膜。
b.內應力和結合強度。薄膜的內應力和結合強度是決定薄膜的穩定性和使用壽命,影響薄膜性能的兩個重要因素,內應力高和結合強度低的DLC膜容易在應用中產生裂紋、褶皺,甚至脫落,所以制備的DLC膜最好具有適中的壓應力和較高的結合強度。
2、摩擦性能
DLC膜不僅具有優異的耐磨性,而且具有很低的摩擦系數,一般低于0.2,是一種優異的表面抗磨損改性膜。DLC的摩擦系數隨制備工藝的不同和膜中成分的變化而變化,其摩擦系數最低可達0.005[13]。摻雜金屬元素可能降低其摩擦系數,但加入H能提高潤滑作用,環境也對摩擦系數有一定的影響。但總的來說,DLC膜與傳統的硬質薄膜(如上述的TiN、TiC、TiAlN等)相比,在摩擦系數方面具有明顯優勢,這些傳統硬質薄膜的摩擦系數都在0.4以上。因此,DLC膜有可能在許多摩擦學領域替代這些傳統硬膜。
3、熱穩定性
由于DLC屬亞穩態的材料,熱穩定性差是限制DLC膜應用的一個重要因素,在300℃以上退火時即出現了sp3鍵向sp2鍵轉變,為此,人們進行了大量的工作試圖提高其熱穩定性。有研究發現:Si的加入可以明顯改善DLC膜的熱穩定性,含20 at%Si的DLC膜在740℃退火時才出現sp3鍵向sp2鍵轉變。同樣,金屬(如Ti、W、Cr)的摻入也可提高DLC膜的熱穩定性。
4、耐腐蝕性
純DLC膜具有優異的耐蝕性,各類酸、堿甚至王水都很難侵蝕它。但摻雜有其他元素的DLC膜的耐蝕性有所下降,這是由于摻雜的元素首先被侵蝕,從而破壞了膜的連續性所致。
5、表面狀態
DLC膜表面一般較光潔,對基材的表面光潔度沒有太大的影響,但隨著膜厚的增加,表面光潔度會下降。不同的沉積方法所得到的DLC膜表面光潔度也是不同的。
DLC膜具有很好的抗粘結性,特別是對有色金屬(如銅、鋁、鋅等),對塑料、橡膠、陶瓷等也有抗粘結性。
類金剛石(DLC)涂層技術:
不同類型的類金剛石涂層,具有不同的生產技術。DLC涂層適用于極端磨損情況和高相對速度,甚至是在無潤滑運轉的條件下使用,具有卓越的耐磨蝕性、抗摩擦氧化性和附著性(防磨損),可承受在正常條件下會立刻導致磨損和冷焊的表面壓力,將摩擦損失降至最小,良好的耐腐蝕性使基體免受破壞性攻擊。
DLC膜被稱為非晶碳膜,具有卓越的耐磨蝕性、抗摩擦氧化性和附著性,適用于極端磨損情況和高相對速度使用。


DLC (diamond like carbon)

"DLC" is the abbreviation of "diamond-like carbon". DLC is a kind of material which is composed of carbon, similar to diamond in nature, and has graphite atomic structure. Diamond like carbon (DLC) film is a kind of amorphous film, because of its high hardness and high elastic modulus, low friction coefficient, wear resistance and good vacuum tribological properties, it is very suitable for wear-resistant coating, which has attracted the attention of tribological circles.

1. Mechanical properties

a. Hardness and elastic modulus. The hardness and elastic modulus of DLC films prepared by different deposition methods are very different. DLC films with hardness up to or even higher than diamond can be prepared by magnetic filtered cathode arc method.

b. Internal stress and bonding strength. The internal stress and bonding strength of DLC film are two important factors that determine the stability and service life of the film and affect the performance of the film. The DLC film with high internal stress and low bonding strength is easy to crack, fold and even fall off in the application, so the DLC film had better have moderate compressive stress and high bonding strength.

2. Friction performance

DLC film not only has excellent wear resistance, but also has very low friction coefficient, generally less than 0.2, which is an excellent surface anti-wear modified film. The friction coefficient of DLC varies with the preparation process and the composition of the film, and the lowest friction coefficient can reach 0.005 [13]. Doping metal elements may reduce the friction coefficient, but adding h can improve the lubrication effect, and the environment also has a certain influence on the friction coefficient. But in general, DLC film has obvious advantages in friction coefficient compared with traditional hard films (such as tin, tic, TiAlN, etc.), and the friction coefficient of these traditional hard films is more than 0.4. Therefore, DLC film may replace these traditional hard coatings in many tribological fields.

3. Thermal stability

Because DLC is a metastable material, the poor thermal stability is an important factor limiting the application of DLC films. When annealed at above 300 ℃, SP3 bond changes to SP2 bond. Therefore, a lot of work has been done to improve the thermal stability of DLC films. It has been found that the thermal stability of DLC films can be significantly improved by the addition of Si. The SP3 to SP2 bond transition of DLC films containing 20 at% Si occurs only after annealing at 740 ℃. The thermal stability of DLC films can also be improved by the addition of metal (such as Ti, W, Cr).

4. Corrosion resistance

Pure DLC film has excellent corrosion resistance, which is difficult to be eroded by various acids, alkalis and even aqua regia. However, the corrosion resistance of DLC films doped with other elements decreases because the doped elements are eroded first, which destroys the continuity of the films.

5. Surface state

The surface of DLC film is generally smooth, which has little effect on the surface finish of substrate, but with the increase of film thickness, the surface finish will decrease. The surface finish of DLC films obtained by different deposition methods is also different.

DLC film has good adhesion resistance, especially for non-ferrous metals (such as copper, aluminum, zinc, etc.), plastics, rubber, ceramics, etc.

Diamond like carbon (DLC) coating technology:

Different types of diamond-like carbon coatings have different production technologies. DLC coating is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed, even under the condition of no lubrication operation. It has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion (anti-wear). It can withstand the surface pressure that will immediately cause wear and cold welding under normal conditions, and minimize the friction loss. Good corrosion resistance can protect the substrate from destructive attack.

DLC film, known as amorphous carbon film, has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion, which is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed applications.

類金剛石(DLC)涂層技術:
不同類型的類金剛石涂層,具有不同的生產技術。DLC涂層適用于極端磨損情況和高相對速度,甚至是在無潤滑運轉的條件下使用,具有卓越的耐磨蝕性、抗摩擦氧化性和附著性(防磨損),可承受在正常條件下會立刻導致磨損和冷焊的表面壓力,將摩擦損失降至最小,良好的耐腐蝕性使基體免受破壞性攻擊。
DLC膜被稱為非晶碳膜,具有卓越的耐磨蝕性、抗摩擦氧化性和附著性,適用于極端磨損情況和高相對速度使用。

Diamond like carbon (DLC) coating technology:

Different types of diamond-like carbon coatings have different production technologies. DLC coating is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed, even under the condition of no lubrication operation. It has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion (anti-wear). It can withstand the surface pressure that will immediately cause wear and cold welding under normal conditions, and minimize the friction loss. Good corrosion resistance can protect the substrate from destructive attack.

DLC film, known as amorphous carbon film, has excellent wear resistance, anti-oxidation and adhesion, which is suitable for extreme wear and high relative speed applications.

DLC涂層類型:
a - C             無氫非晶碳膜
ta - C            四面體無氫非晶碳膜
a - C:Me       金屬摻雜無氯非晶碳膜(Me=W,
a - C:H          含氫非晶碳膜
ta - C:H         四面體含氫非晶碳膜
a - C:H:Me    金屬摻雜含氫非晶碳膜(Me=W,
a - C:H:X       改性含氯非晶碳膜(X=Si,


DLC coating type:

a - C               Hydrogen free amorphous carbon film

ta - C             Tetrahedral hydrogen free amorphous carbon films

a - C:Me         Metal doped chlorine free amorphous carbon films (me = w,

a - C:H           Amorphous carbon films containing hydrogen

ta - C:H           Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films containing hydrogen

a - C:H:Me     Metal doped amorphous carbon films containing hydrogen (me = w,

a - C:H:X         Modified amorphous carbon film containing chlorine (x = Si,

應用:
1、鉆頭、銑刀
DLC膜可以應用于鉆頭和銑刀上,特別是摻雜金屬的DLC膜,它不僅具有高的硬度,還具有低的摩擦系數、抗有色金屬粘結。荷蘭的Hauzer公司制備的摻金屬DLC膜層,用于切削高強度鋁合金時,能減少表面所謂的切屑瘤。結果是延長工具的壽命并使工件材料在切削后表面光滑。特別是在干切削和深孔加工方面,膜層性能非常好。
2、光盤模具及其輔助模具
光盤模具是生產CD、CDR、DVD的重要工具,為了減少它與母盤(鎳盤)的摩擦,希望模具表面硬且摩擦系數小,目前,國外大多采用DLC膜層,大大提高了模具的壽命和盤片的質量。鍍膜之后有硬度高,摩擦系數低,耐磨,耐腐蝕,抗粘結性好且環保等特點。
3、芯軸
DLC膜的耐磨減摩及耐腐蝕性,可顯著提高齒輪、芯軸等運動部件的使用性能及壽命。
4、刀片上的應用
現在DLC也在各種刀片如剪刀、刮胡刀等上的應用。DLC膜減小了刀片與皮膚的摩擦,改善了刀片的性能,延長了使用壽命。
5、關鍵零部件上的應用
DLC膜在許多關鍵零部件也能發揮其優良的性能,比如在活塞上的應用利用其低的摩擦系數,降低摩擦力,提高耐磨性,達到無油潤滑及使用壽命要求。在縫紉機配件旋梭上鍍DLC膜替代原來的電鍍硬鉻處理,不但避免了污染環境的問題,而且,明顯提高工件表面硬度及耐磨性,使用壽命提高了10倍以上,同時,也因表面膜層摩擦系數降低后,使機器運行過程中產生的噪音變小。
6、其它應用
DLC膜在工模具上的應用其它例子非常多,如:粉末冶金成型模具、塑膠成型模具、引線框彎曲模具、玻璃片成型模具、鎂合金加工模具、在軸承等。


Application:

1. Drill, milling cutter

DLC film can be applied to drill bit and milling cutter, especially metal doped DLC film. It has not only high hardness, but also low friction coefficient and anti-ferrous metal bonding. The metal doped DLC film prepared by Hauser company in Holland can reduce the so-called chip bump on the surface of high strength aluminum alloy. The result is a longer tool life and a smoother surface of the workpiece material after cutting. Especially in dry cutting and deep hole processing, the film has very good performance.

2. Optical disc mould and its auxiliary mould

The die for CD, CDR and DVD is an important tool to produce CD, CDR and DVD. In order to reduce the friction between the die and the master disk (nickel disk), we hope that the die surface is hard and the friction coefficient is small. At present, most foreign countries use DLC film, which greatly improves the life of the die and the quality of the disk. After coating, it has the characteristics of high hardness, low friction coefficient, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, good adhesion resistance and environmental protection.

3. Mandrel

The wear resistance, friction reduction and corrosion resistance of DLC film can significantly improve the service performance and service life of gear, mandrel and other moving parts.

4. Application on blade

Now DLC is also used in all kinds of blades, such as scissors, razors and so on. The DLC film reduces the friction between the blade and the skin, improves the performance of the blade and prolongs its service life.

5. Application on key parts

DLC film can also play its excellent performance in many key parts, such as the application in piston. By using its low friction coefficient, it can reduce friction, improve wear resistance, and meet the requirements of oil-free lubrication and service life. Instead of the original plating hard chromium treatment, the DLC coating on the sewing machine shuttle spindle not only avoids the problem of polluting the environment, but also significantly improves the surface hardness and wear resistance of the workpiece, and the service life is increased by more than 10 times. At the same time, because of the reduction of the friction coefficient of the surface film layer, the noise generated during the running of the machine becomes smaller.

6. Other applications

There are many other applications of DLC film in tooling, such as powder metallurgy molding mold, plastic molding mold, lead frame bending mold, glass molding mold, magnesium alloy processing mold, in bearing and so on.

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